Historical Profession List

Sometimes it comes to pass that there are players that wish to make use of the Profession skill but are unsure what makes sense in a D&D setting. Here is a fair starting point base on historical options. There is a lot of redundancy below, and this doesn’t begin to include the new and unique options a D&D setting may present. But this is more than enough to overwhelm some people, and get creativity running in others.

392 Commoner Professions by Camberus

None: in most cases, Commoners have all the class skills necessary for the listed professions.
Where necessary, Survival or other useful skills can be added with one of the following feats:
Skill Knowledge (UA 81)
Skill Prodigy (KoKPG 91).
Arborist (tree care)
Shrager (pruned & trimmed trees, usually in cities)
Beekeeper (honey production)
Charcoalburner (made charcoal)
Collier (made or sold coal or charcoal)
Dairymaid/Dairyboy (self-explanatory)
Drayman (driver of a dray, a long strong wagon)
Teamster (transporter of goods with a team of pulling animals)
Dung Carter (transporter of fertilizer)
Dong Farmer/Gong Farmer (in cities, excrement hauler)
Farmer (one who worked the land to produce food or other grown resources)
Peasant/Serf/Villein (farmer bound to the land)
Crofter (farmer who rents the land)
Yeoman/Freibauer (farmer who owns their land)
Poulterer (poultry farmer)
Gardener (one who tended a garden, usually a small-scale farm with more variety)
Hurdle-maker (made wattle fencing)
Herdsman (one who tended and sold herd animals)
Cowherd (common variant)
Goatherd (common variant)
Horse Herder (common variant)
Shepherd (common variant)
Sheepshearer, Woolman (one who harvested wool from sheep)
Swineherd (common variant)
Animal Trainer (trained mounts)
Horse Trainer (common variant)
Master-of-Horses (caretaker of horses for an estate)
Ambler (horsebreaker)
Trainers of Brixashulty, Elephant, Pony, Riding Dog and Goat, various dire animals such as Dire Badger and Weasel, etc.
Miller (one who ground grain into flour; may benefit from Knowledge (engineering))
Orchard Keeper/Orchard Grower (one who tended fruit trees for food or alcohol production)
Berry Grower (one who grew fruit on bushes)
Nut Grower (one who grew nut-bearing trees or bushes)
Ostler/Currier/Hostler/Groom (cared for horses and other mounts)
Stableboy, Stablehand (underling in a stable)
Coistsell (cared for knight’s horses)
Peat Cutter (made blocks of peat for fuel)
Renderer (process carcasses to obtain resources such as tallow)
Vintner/Vinter/Winemaker (one who grew fruit on vines (usually grapes))

Animal Handler (trained animals for hunting)
Kenneler or Dog Handler (trained and kept hounds for hunting)
Fewterer (keeper of greyhounds)
Bug Catcher (hunter for insects)
Egg Gatherer (hunter for wild eggs)
Gatherer/Forager (hunter for plant resources)
Mushroom, nut, berry, moss, lichen, brush, stick etc gatherer
Fueler (gatherer of wood for fuel)
Rat Catcher (hunter of unwanted rodents, usually rats in urban areas)
Molecatcher (hunter of burrowing animals)
Woodcutter, Lumberer, Woodsman (gatherer of lumber for construction)

Diver (deep hunter or salvager)
Fisher (one who fished for foood, usually from a boat but also from shore)
Eel Tender (one who cared for an eel pond, usually for nobility)
Koi Keeper (one who cared for an koi pond, usually for nobility)
Weirkeeper (keeper of traps for fish, crabs, and other aquaculture).
Leech-Collector (gatherer of aquatic vermin)
Oysterer/Oyster Raker (mussel gatherer)
Clamdigger (clam gatherer)
Seaweed Harvester (kelp gatherer)
Gatherers of algae, moss, sea cucumbers (variants)

Delfer/Delver/Digger (digger of ditches, tunnels, mines, quarries)
Ditcher (one who dug ditches)
Holer (one who makes vertical holes)
Trencherman (digger of trenches)
Iron Hunter (hunts iron nodules in bogs)
Limeburner (maker of lime by burning calcium carbonate)
Marler (laborer in a marl pit–clay and calcium carbonate, used for fertilizer)
Miner (worked in a mine)
Gold miner (common variant)
Iron miner (most common variant)
Lead miner (common variant)
Saltminer (common variant)
Prospector (more adventurous version of a miner, usually independent and self-sufficient)
Quarryer/Quarrymen (extracotr of clay or stone)
Stonecutter (rough dresser of stone)
Collier (coal miner/merchant)
Rock Gatherer (gathered and hauled rock)
Tar Gatherer (gathered the oil tar found in tar pits)

Brickmaker (maker of bricks using molds, also one who fires them in a kiln)
Tilemaker/Tile-burner (common variant)
Ceiler (one who lines or finishes a surface in construction)
Laborer (includes any type of general labor construction worker)
Clouter (one who clouts or strikes)
Mason (one who sets or mortars blocks in construction)
Bricker/Brickmason/Bricklayer (common variant)
Claymason (common variant)
Stonemason (common variant)
Plasterer/Plaisterer (spreads plaster on walls for construction and painting)
Roadlayer/Streetlayer (maker of roads)
Paver/Pavior (a person who lays paving slabs)
Sawyer (sawed lumber into boards)
Roofer (maker of roofs)
Shingler (roofer with shingles)
Thatcher/Thacker (roofer with thatch)
Tiler/Tile-theeker/Tyler (roofer with tiles)
Wattler (wove mats, fences, or housing panels out of wattles)
Wright/Woodworker (worker with wood, especially in construction, a carpenter)
Framer (constructor of timber frames for buildings)
Joiner/Joyner (capable of finer work, such as a furniture maker).

Calligrapher (specializing in artistic writing)
Carver (artistically carved hard materials
Boneworker (bone carver)
Ivorist (ivory carver)
Stonecarver (carver of stone)
Woodcarver (carver of wood)
Composer (one who wrote music)
Engraver (carved/engraved words or pictures into metal)
Illuminator (artistic copyist of written work
Limner (one who created created decorative art in manuscripts)
Painter (one who painted for a living using Craft (painting))
Fresco Painter (one who painted on wet plaster walls)
Glasspainter (one who painted glass, usually before firing)
Miniaturist (painter of mini portraits)
Sand Painter (one who made artistic designs using colored sand)
Sign Painter (one who painted signs and logos; may benefit from heraldic knowledge (nobility & royalty))
Playwright (writer of theatrical works using Craft (written composition), possibly Perform (acting))
Sculptor (maker of 3-D art)
Terracotta Sculptor (one who sculpted clay or used molds to produce artistic works, usually firing the results)
Alabasterer Sculptor in alabaster, usually for monuments
Tattooist (tattoo artist)
Writer (one who writes using Craft (written composition))

Note: although Perform is not a Commoner class skill, many performers were indeed commoners.
There is a simple solution. Two feats can add class skills, such as Perform:
Skill Knowledge (UA 81)
Skill Prodigy (KoKPG 91)
Actor (uses Perform (act))
Mourner Professional weeper at funerals.
Mummer Ancient version of a mime, usually masked.
Animal Performer (One using animals for entertainment. Commoner focuses on Handle Animal, animal focuses on Perform trick)
Bear-Baiter/Bear-ward (uses bears to entertain, often in combat with another animal, such as a dog or bull)
Bull-fighter/Bull-leaper (entertains by avoiding death from a bull)
Dancer (one who danced for a living. Uses Perform (dance))
Jester/Fool (comedic entertainer, Perform (comedy))
Juggler/Jongleur (juggling performer, often comic)
Musician (player of an instrument)
Busker (street musician)
Harper (common variant)
Lutenist (common variant)
Nakerer (drummer)
Piper (common variant)
Trumpeter (common variant)
Poet (writer of poetry with Craft (written composition, possibly Perform (oratory))
Minstrel/Singer (vocal performer with Perform (sing))
Meistersinger, Minnesinger (specialized in love songs).

None: in most cases, Commoners have all the class skills necessary for the listed professions.
The most common exception is a crafter that is also a merchant.
Where necessary, Knowledge or other needed skills can be added with one of the following feats:
Skill Knowledge (UA 81)
Skill Prodigy (KoKPG 91).
Armorsmith (maker of armors with Craft (armorsmithing))
Armorer (maker of rigid armors)
Leathersmith (maker of leather and hide armors, and cuir boulli (boiled/hardened leather)) See C. LEATHERWORKER
Mailmaker (chain mail armor maker)
Bladesmith (maker of weapon blades)
Grinder (sharpener)
Knifesmith (common variant)
Scythesmith (common variant)
Swordsmith (common variant)
Boyer (maker of bows with Craft (bowmaking))
Alblastere (maker of crossbows)
Fletcher (maker of arrows)
Arrowsmith (maker of arrowheads) Stringer (maker of bowstrings).
Cannonfounder (maker of cannons, usually using molten iron or bronze in molds)
Gunsmith (maker of firearms)
Gunstocker (maker of gunstocks)
Lancier (maker of lances and other polearm weapons)
Poleturner (maker of poles)
Weaponsmith (maker of various weapons, usually melee)

Accoutrement Maker (supplier or maker of military clothing and accessories)
Bleacher (one who whitened the color of textiles, such as wool or linen)
Broderer (hand embroiderer)
Marleywoman (a maker of the gauze on which embroidery was done, called marli)
Buttonmaker (maker of buttons)
Haberdasher (seller of small articles for sewing, such as buttons, ribbons and zippers)
Carder/Woolcomber (one who carded wool to prepare it for spinning)
Billier (preparer of cotton for spinning).
Clothier (one who made or sold clothing)
Corsetier (maker or seller of corsets)
Dyer (one who colored cloth with dyes)
Stainer (a worker who stains (wood or fabric)).
Feltmaker (one who pressed fibers together to make cloth (as opposed to spinning and weaving))
Fuller/Tucker/Walker (one who “fulls” cloth: removing the natural oils and lanolin from wool before spinning and weaving)
Furrier (maker of furs into wearable articles)
Hatmaker/Hatter (maker or seller of hats)
Milliner (women’s hat maker and seller, often sold other women’s clothing as well)
Lacemaker/Pointer (one who made or crocheted lace)
Napier (someone who made or sold table linen, or was in charge of the linen of a great house)
Quilter (maker of quilted articles (including clothing)
Linen-Armorer (maker of quilted gambesons worn alone or beneath armor)
Seamstress/Tailor (maker of clothing)
Silkmaker/Silkmaid (maker of silk
Silk-carder (carder of silk fiber)
Silk Dresser (silk seamstress)
Silk-dyer (dyer of silk)
Spinner/Spinster/Threadmaker (maker of thread out of plant or animal fibers)
Linenspinner (spinner of flax)
Silkspinner (maker of silk fibers into thread)
Weaver/Webber (one who wove thread into cloth
Canvasser (maker of canvas)
Linener (maker of linen)
Fabricshearer (cutter of cloth)

Beltmaker/Girdler (maker of belts)
Glover (one who makes gloves; can include textile glovemaking)
Lorimer (one who makes leather goods for use with animals, including harness, riding crops and saddles)
Bridlemaker (maker of bridles)
Harnessmaker/Knacker (maker of harness)
Saddlemaker/Saddler (tooler of leather for saddles)
Leatherworker (general maker of leather goods, including leather armor)
Bottelier (maker of leather bottles)
Thonger (maker or leather laces and cordage–not lingerie, you sickos)
Malemaker (maker of leather bags, pouches, sacks, saddlebags, travelling bags and trunks.
Purser/Purse-Maker (maker of purses)
Scabbard Maker/Vaginarius (maker of sheaths for daggers, swords, and other weapons, also called Vaginarius.
Bowcase Maker (maker of bowcases)
Holster Maker (maker of holsters)
Quiver Maker (maker of quivers)
Shoemaker (maker of leather shoes)
Bootmaker (maker of boots)
Cobbler (one who repaired damaged footwear)
Cordwainer (originally: high-quality leatherworker, but later just a fancy shoemaker)
Pattenmaker (maker of pattens, wooden under-shoes for wearing in the rain)
Tanner (one who makes tans hides to make leather) See also AGRICULTURE: Renderer
Currier (one who stretches, thins, softens, finishes, and dyes tanned hides)

Bellmaker/Campaner (maker of common (small) bells; larger bells were made by bronze foundries)
Blacksmith (general maker of metal goods, especially of iron)
Chainmaker (maker of chains)
Drawer/Wiredrawer (maker of wire and other “drawn” metal goods)
Nailmaker (maker of nails)
Nedeller (maker of needles)
Pinmaker (maker of pins)
Siever (maker of sieves)
Brassworker (maker of brass articles)
Lattener/Latoner/Lattensmith (maker of latten articles; latten was an alloy similar to brass)
Bronzefounder (maker of large bronze works, such as church bells, cannon, and statuary)
Bucklemaker (maker of metal buckles)
Coppersmith/Brazier (maker of copper articles)
Redsmith (a tinsmith that uses tinsmithing tools and techniques to make copper items)
Cutler (maker of cutlery: household and personal blades)
Farrier (maker and fitter of horseshoes)
Foundryman (maker of metal goods using molds)
Typefounder (maker of moveable type)
Goldsmith/Goldbeater (maker of gold articles, sometimes also a minter)
Jeweler (maker of jewelry)
Silversmith/Brightsmith (maker of silver articles)
Lampwright/Lanternmaker (maker of lamps and lanterns)
Leadworker (worker in lead, such as for pipes, pewter production, or setting glass)
Riveter (person whose job was to install rivets, such as in metal construction)
Smelter (one who smelted ore into metal ingotsd)
Ironsmelter (most common variant)
Spooner (maker of metal eating utensils)
Tinsmith (maker of tin goods
Pewterer (worker of an alloy of tin and lead, or of tin, copper, and antimony)
Pot Mender (repairer of pots)
Tinker (itinerant repairer of household metal goods, usually low-cost tin goods, in towns without a tinsmith)
Trapsmith (maker of traps with Craft (trapmaking))

Balancemaker (maker of balances, weights, and measures)
Compasssmith (maker of compasses)
Basketmaker (maker of baskets with Craft (basketmaking))
Besom maker (maker of brooms (called besoms)
Brushbinder (maker of brushes)
Boatwright (maker of boats or other water vessels
Bargewright (maker of flatboats, usually for hauling goods on rivers)
Shipwright (maker of larger vessels)
Brewer (maker of alcohol) See also AGRICULTURE: Vintner and MERCHANT: Beer Seller
Carpenter (worker of wood)
Arkwright (one who manufactured chests)
Cabinetmaker (maker of cabinetry)
Furniture Maker (maker of furniture)
Treen Maker (one who makes various small wood items)
Turner/Bodger/Woodturner (wooden lathe worker, such as for chair and table legs, and stair railings)
Cartographer/Mapmaker (mapmaker with Knowledge (geography) and Craft (mapmaking); could be a Commoner with Knowledge Devotion)
Cartwright (maker of carts)
Wainwright (maker of wagons)
Chandler (maker or seller of candles, but commonly also proprietor of a general store)
Tallowchandler (maker of candles from animal fat)
Waxchandler (maker of candles from wax)
Cooper (maker of barrels and kegs)
Drycooper (one whose barrels did not need to be water-tight)
Enameler/Mailer (one who enameled objects such as jewelry, or make enamelware (metal cookware with an enamel shell))
Gemcutter (one who cut or sold gems with Craft (gemcutting)
Diamantaire (diamond specialist)
Gilder (one who applied gold leaf for decoration)
Glassblower (maker of blown glasswares)
Mirrorer (maker of mirrors)
Glazier (maker and installer of windows, also skilled in carpentry and stonemasonry for window frames)
Horner (worker of horn or shell, such as for cutlery handles, combs, and bracing in clothing)
Combmaker (maker of combs)
Instrument Maker (maker of musical instruments)
Lutemaker/Luthier (maker and repairer of stringed instruments)
Reedmaker (maker of flutes and other wind instruments)
Knapper/Flintknapper (shaper of flint or obsidian to make weapons, tools, or flints for firearms)
Netmaker/Netweaver (maker of nets)
Oilmaker/Elymaker (one who made oil)
Papermaker (producer of paper)
Parchmenter (producer of parchment and/or vellum)
Perfumer (maker of perfumes)
Plumber (applied sheet lead for roofing and set lead frames for glass windows; later also made and fixed pipes (of lead))
Potter (one who made vessels of fired clay)
Disher (maker of bowls or dishes, usually from clay)
Printer (one who printed books and other works with Craft (bookbinding); possibly an Expert)
Blockcutter (maker of block letters used in printing)
Bookbinder (binder of books)
Typesetter (arranger of moveable type in printing)
Roper/Ropemaker (maker of ropes)
Rugmaker/Rugweaver (one who produced rugs)
Saltboiler/Salter (distilled salt from seawater)
Tapestrymaker/Tapicer (one who weaves tapestries)
Tenter/Tentmaker (producer of tents and pavilions)
Upholder (an upholsterer)
Wheelwright (maker of wheels)
Wheeler (maker of spinning wheels)
Wigmaker/Perukier (producer of wigs)


(note: most professions in this category are experts or better, and so they are not shown)
Bandit/Highwayman (criminal of the open road, specializes in attacking travelers; could be a Commoner, but likely not)
Footpad (a highwayman on foot)
Poacher (one who illegally kills animals, usually on somebody else’s land)
Shill/Hawker (one who entices others in a Charlatan’s scheme (Charlatans were more likely to be experts, so aren’t on this list))92

Camp Follower (a prostitute who serviced warriors on the march; also other military support commoners, such as cooks and wood foragers)
Prostitute (a whore, one who sells sex for money)

Beggar (someone who begs for their support)
Buffoon (related to fools/jesters, but unemployed; most likely someone with an untreated mental illness)
Drunkard (one who wastes away their life on alcohol
Opium Addict (few drug addictions had as much impact as opium, but in D&D the sky is the limit)
Gambler (one who gambles instead of working; usually has a string of debts and broken promises)
Lunatic (a crazy person; literally, one who became unstable with the lunar cycle)
Pilgrim (one undertaking a journey for religious reasons–akin to a tourist, but often begging or barely subsisting along the way)
Refugee (displaced person or transient, usually without the means to settle permanently)
Scapegoat (a person or group who is blamed for the sins, crimes, or sufferings of others)
Whipping Boy (a child who takes the brunt of others’ anger of frustration; used as a “punching bag” in modern terms)
Slave (involuntarily employed, usually without compensation; could be educated, but most weren’t)
Squatter (similar to a begger, one who sets up a temporary or makeshift home wherever they can)
Urchin (usually an underage beggar living on the streets; often crossing over into criminal activity)
Vagabond (an unwanted person living outside the traditional boundaries of society; often overlapping with a criminal profession)
Wastrel (a wasteful or good-for-nothing person; alternatively: a waif; a neglected child)

(note: most professions in this category are experts or better, and so they are not shown)
Town Crier (One who makes official announcements, usually with Perform (oratory))

(note: many professions in this category are experts or better, and so they are not shown)
Astrologer (one who tells fortunes or gives predictions using the constellations, natural signs, birth information, and so forth)
Nurse (originally meant a “wet-nurse,” a woman hired to suckle a baby; later meant one who cared for the sick or infirm also)
Piss-prophet (one who diagnosed diseases by inspecting the patient’s urine)
Toad Doctor (practitioners of folk magic, mainly healing scrofula, notably by hanging a toad about the neck of the afflicted)

(note: most professions in this category are experts or better, and so they are not shown)
Fueler (one who sells wood or other fuel)
Collier (coal seller)
Hetheleder (harvests, dries, and sells branches of heather for fuel)
Woodmonger/Wood Seller (sells wood)
Hay Merchant (retailer of hay, straw, and similar materials; likely also one who grows the hay/straw)
Waterseller (seller of water; may also provide delivery service, where piped water was not available)

(note: most professions in this category are not shown, because they are warriors by default)
Camp Follower (having various roles, from cook to paid comfort) See also Criminal (Prostitute)
Conscript (likely a lower class farmer or other lowly profession; may have enough training to use a spear)
Gladiator (fighting for entertainment, often a slave; might be a commoner with just one martial weapon proficiency feat)
Brawler (unarmed gladiator)
Charioteer (chariot driver for entertainment)
Jockey (horseracer)
Militia (local, may have volunteered to help protect their land; note the Militia regional feat would be appropriate)
Quartermaster (one whose duty is to provide quarters, provisions, storage, clothing, fuel, stationery, and transportation for troops)
Sapper (miners tasked with undermining walls and setting fire to the supports in a siege)

(note: many professions in this category are experts or better, and so they are not shown)
Almoner (a chaplain or church officer in charge of distributing alms and offerings from the faithful, to the poor)
Colporteur (a peddler of books, newspapers, etc.; someone employed by a religious society to distribute religious tracts)
Cultist (a fanatic, follower of a cult; may be an Expert, Adept, Monk etc.)
Hermit/Anchorite, Ascetic, Santon (a religious recluse)
Ostiary (porter, doorman, or gatekeeper at a religious house; a sort of guard; might be an Expert, Warrior or Monk)
Palmer (a pilgrim who had returned from the Holy Land with a palm frond as a sign of having undertaken the pilgrimage)
Sexton (a person who looks after a church and churchyard, sometimes acting as bell-ringer and gravedigger)
Bell-ringer (one who rang the bell or bells of a church)
Gravedigger (one who dug graves)
Sin-eater (a person who is supposed to take sins of a deceased person upon themself)

Boatman (one who transports passengers or goods on a boat (often a small vessel))
Bargeman (one who runs a barge)
Canaller (one who runs a canal boat)
Ferryman (one who runs a ferry)
Waterman (one who transported passengers across or along waterways, often in cities)
Boatwright (builder of boats and other water vessels; see CRAFTER)
Provisioner (person in charge of the goods needed for a ship voyage, such as foodstuffs, water, and supplies)
Rower/Oarsman (one who propels a vessel with muscle power; in many settings, rowers may be slaves)
Sailor (base worker on a sailing vessel; might be criminals, slaves, or prisoners of war pressed into service)
Mariner/Seaman/Seafarer (ocean sailor)
Deckman/Deckhand (less skilled; one who works on the decks and not aloft in the sails)
Cabin Boy (young sailor, often an errand-runner)

(note: most professions in this category are experts or better, and so they are not shown)
Amanuensis/Scrivener (professional copyist. May be an Expert if Decipher Script, Forgery, and/or Speak Language are needed as class skills)
Clerk/Scribe (one who does paperwork for a living)
Quack (a false scholar – one claiming expertise that is fake or unfounded; may be an Expert skilled in Bluff)

Bather/Bath-Attendant (one who professionally bathed others, usually of the upper class; might include masseuse skills.
Dresser (one who dressed others)
Carman (a driver of a streetcar or horse-drawn carriage)
Carter/Cartier (one who drives a cart, or who operates a business out of a cart; person who transports a load on a cart
Wagoner (driver of a wagon) (see Agriculture: Drayman)
Cellarer (a provisioner responsible for providing food and drink, including purchasing, storing, and tracking quantities)
Panter/Pantler (keeper of a pantry, often for an estate or institution)
Chimney Sweep (one employed cleaning chimneys)
Cook (one who makes food by cooking it)
Courier (a person who delivers mail or dispatches, often long distances. Less commonly, one who delivers goods)
Messenger (one who delivers messages, often locally)
Housewife (while not employed as such, they had many skills that could be covered under a Profession heading)
Link Boy/Link Man (a boy employed to carry a torch or other light at night to help people navigate through the streets)
Maid (a domestic servant or cleaner. Also meaning a virgin or unmarried woman, but originally meaning a virgin of any gender)
Maidservant/Manservant (more than just a maid, an attendant of a noble, gentleman, or gentlewoman; may be an expert)
Attendant (more explicitly one serving a lady of rank)
Butler (the chief servant of a house, likely an expert)
Newsboy (a young person employed with selling or distributing newspapers or handbills)
Paperer (a person who papers walls, hangs or installs wallpaper)
Pavyler (someone who set up tents and pavilions)
Porter (a doorman or gatekeeper; alternately: person who carries luggage and related objects)
Privycleaner (one who cleaned chamber pots and other containers of excrement)
Servant (usually a domestic (indoor) worker)
Dapifer (one who brings meat to the table)
Food Taster (seeker of poisons)
Treadmill Worker (an unskilled worker who powered a treadmill; often as part of a hoist crane, quarry, or construction site)
Waiter (one who waited on guests at an inn, tavern, or restaurant)
Servingboy/girl, Tavern Wench (less distinguished than a waiter)
Pot Boy (a boy employed as waiter to serve (pots of) drinks, as in a tavern)
Water carrier (one who ported and possibly sold water)

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3 Responses to “Historical Profession List”

  1. Holy crapoli Camber! Where did you get all of these?

  2. It sounds like you made a list of Expert professions too. I’d love to see that.

  3. Camber says:

    Various sources, including even a genealogy site. There are a lot of medieval professions that have been preserved in surnames.

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